Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells as a result of inherited and exposed environmental effects and mutations in its genetic infrastructure.
Cancer occurs as a result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if they are present in the germ cells (egg and sperm),which are the body's reproductive cells. The patient's cancer may be associated with an inherited cancer syndrome of which the family is unaware. Not all types of cancer are inherited either. Cancer types that develop as a result of mutations in cells do not pass on to the next generation, their biological consequences only affect the individual himself.
Hereditary cancers are caused by mutations in certain genes that are passed from parents to children. Close family members with the same type of cancer indicate hereditary cancer.
For example, people with a family history of ovarian, breast, uterus, lung, pancreatic, colon, stomach and prostate cancers should have genetic tests done for hereditary cancer syndromes.
Cancer screening tests also show whether family members without a diagnosed disease inherit the same mutation as a family member who carries a cancer-related mutation. A genetic counselor helps an individual or family understand test results and explain the possible implications of their results for other family members.
Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes put a woman's risk of developing hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and a man's risk of developing hereditary prostate or breast cancer.
The TP53 Gene acts as a tumor suppressor; It regulates cell division by preventing cells from growing and multiplying rapidly or uncontrollably. By stopping mutated or damaged cells from dividing, p53 helps prevent tumors from developing. Because p53 is essential for regulating DNA repair and cell division, it has been called the "guardian of the genome."
While genetic damage does not necessarily mean they will develop cancer, they do put them at a high risk of developing the disease at some point in life.
Although the rate of breast cancer is 12% in women with standard risk in the society, this rate can increase up to 55-65% in BRCA1 gene carriers associated with breast cancer, and up to 45% in BRCA2 gene carriers. In addition, while the risk of ovarian cancer increases from 1.3% to 40% in BRCA1 carriers, there is a 15-20% increase in BRCA2 carriers.
The presence of environmental carcinogens in genetically at risk individuals makes the increased risk more pronounced. For example, genetic changes that lead to the development of cancer are more likely to occur in smokers.
Thanks to cancer screening tests, the risk of developing different cancers in the future can be determined and necessary protective measures can be taken.
If a positive mutation occurs, genetic counseling is provided and the at-risk group is directed to preventive surgery or medical treatment. For example, breast and ovarian surgery is recommended for BRCA 1 or 2 positivity.
People who are known to have the APC gene and are diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have an almost 100% risk of developing colon cancer by age 50. As a preventive treatment for these people, removal of the large intestine (colectomy) at the age of 20 is recommended.
First-degree relatives of people carrying the damaged gene are also more likely to have the same damage. For this reason, precautions can be taken by early screening in family members of those who are found to be mutation-positive.
Errors often occur in the genes of normal cells, which the body detects, corrects or destroys through its control mechanisms. Therefore, the cells continue to function normally. In some cells, the effect of environmental factors over time cannot correct these genetic errors and the cells are separated from the body's control mechanisms.
Abnormal genes accumulate in cells that do not work properly and gain the ability to grow uncontrollably over time. As a result, the cells become cancer cells. The basis of almost all cancer development is the disruption of a cell's genes or genetic makeup. Therefore, cancer is actually a genetic disease.
Diseases that occur as a result of the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation are called hereditary diseases or hereditary diseases. Sometimes defective genes are passed on from families to individuals, while other times a person's normal cells develop mutations over time. Mutations that are acquired later and form related tissues and cells are called somatic mutations.
Some of the well-known cancer genes are:
Cancer genetic testing fees and prices vary according to the gene and the panel. For price information, you can get information from the whatsapp line +90 0532 746 93 36, for the fixed line, you can get information from the phone number +90 0312 217 32 26.
It is a genetic disease because genetically inherited cancers pose a higher risk than normal. It is caused by mutations (changes) in certain genes that are passed from mother and father to child. One type of cancer runs in the family. These diseases are evaluated in oncology as hereditary cancer syndrome.
People who frequently have breast, ovarian (female ovary),colon, uterus, pancreatic, melanoma, stomach and prostate cancers in their family should receive genetic counseling to find out if they have a risk of hereditary cancer. Gene mutation analysis can be done from patients diagnosed with cancer. According to this result, gene mutation monitoring can be done in other family members.
You may have a mutation that causes breast cancer. In this case, it is recommended that you seek genetic counseling to determine which tests may be appropriate for you.
Our center mainly provides services in the fields of genetic counseling, cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics and molecular genetics. The problems of our patients who apply to our center, which are thought to have genetic causes, are helped by using up-to-date information and technology.
Chromosome disorders form an important category of genetic disease. Cytogenetic tests examine the number and morphology of chromosomes.
Diseases that cause deterioration of human health and change the living order are diagnosed and detected through molecular tests.
It is a discipline that expands the scope and increases the diagnostic value of routine chromosome analysis with the combined use of molecular biology and cytogenetic techniques.
Diagnosis of cancer at an early stage greatly affects the success of cancer treatment. Many cancer tests are performed in our genetic diagnosis center.
We offer genetic analysis and clinical consultancy services at the highest technology and quality standards, using the most up-to-date scientific knowledge, diagnosis and treatment methods.