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Cancer Scanning Tests

What is Cancer Genetics?

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells as a result of inherited and exposed environmental effects and mutations in its genetic infrastructure.

Cancer occurs as a result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if they are present in the germ cells (egg and sperm),which are the body's reproductive cells. The patient's cancer may be associated with an inherited cancer syndrome of which the family is unaware. Not all types of cancer are inherited either. Cancer types that develop as a result of mutations in cells do not pass on to the next generation, their biological consequences only affect the individual himself.

Hereditary cancers are caused by mutations in certain genes that are passed from parents to children. Close family members with the same type of cancer indicate hereditary cancer.

For example, people with a family history of ovarian, breast, uterus, lung, pancreatic, colon, stomach and prostate cancers should have genetic tests done for hereditary cancer syndromes.

Cancer screening tests also show whether family members without a diagnosed disease inherit the same mutation as a family member who carries a cancer-related mutation. A genetic counselor helps an individual or family understand test results and explain the possible implications of their results for other family members.

Inherited cancer genes include BRCA1, BRCA2, and P53 or TP53.

Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes put a woman's risk of developing hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and a man's risk of developing hereditary prostate or breast cancer.

The TP53 Gene acts as a tumor suppressor; It regulates cell division by preventing cells from growing and multiplying rapidly or uncontrollably. By stopping mutated or damaged cells from dividing, p53 helps prevent tumors from developing. Because p53 is essential for regulating DNA repair and cell division, it has been called the "guardian of the genome."

Does a Genetic Predisposition in Cancer Test Show that an Individual Will Definately Get Cancer?

While genetic damage does not necessarily mean they will develop cancer, they do put them at a high risk of developing the disease at some point in life.

Although the rate of breast cancer is 12% in women with standard risk in the society, this rate can increase up to 55-65% in BRCA1 gene carriers associated with breast cancer, and up to 45% in BRCA2 gene carriers. In addition, while the risk of ovarian cancer increases from 1.3% to 40% in BRCA1 carriers, there is a 15-20% increase in BRCA2 carriers.

The presence of environmental carcinogens in genetically at risk individuals makes the increased risk more pronounced. For example, genetic changes that lead to the development of cancer are more likely to occur in smokers.

What are Cancer Screening Tests?

  • BRCA 1-2 Gene Mutation Analysis
  • BRCA 1-2 MLPA (Deletion Duplication Analysis)
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (Apc Gene) Whole Gene Analysis
  • Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch Syndrome)
  • Tumor Panel (Braf, Hras, Kras, Nras) MLPA
  • Kras Gene Codon 12, 13, 61, 146 Mutation (Sequence Analysis)
  • LI-Fraumeni Syndrome (Tp53 Gene Sequence Analysis
  • P53 Gene (Tp53) (17p13.1) Fish
  • HER2 (Erbb2-Neu) Fish
  • EGFR (Exon 18 – 19 – 20 – 21) (Egfr Gene Sequence Analysis) (Including T790m Mutation)
  • Imatiinib Resistance (Abl1 Gene Exon 4 - 10 Sequence Analysis)
  • Rejection Oncogene (Exome 10 – 11 – 13 – 14 – 15 And 16 Sequence Analysis
  • Adrenocortical Cancer Panel

What is the Importance of Cancer Genetic Tests?

Thanks to cancer screening tests, the risk of developing different cancers in the future can be determined and necessary protective measures can be taken.

If a positive mutation occurs, genetic counseling is provided and the at-risk group is directed to preventive surgery or medical treatment. For example, breast and ovarian surgery is recommended for BRCA 1 or 2 positivity.

People who are known to have the APC gene and are diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have an almost 100% risk of developing colon cancer by age 50. As a preventive treatment for these people, removal of the large intestine (colectomy) at the age of 20 is recommended.

First-degree relatives of people carrying the damaged gene are also more likely to have the same damage. For this reason, precautions can be taken by early screening in family members of those who are found to be mutation-positive.

Is Cancer Genetic?

Errors often occur in the genes of normal cells, which the body detects, corrects or destroys through its control mechanisms. Therefore, the cells continue to function normally. In some cells, the effect of environmental factors over time cannot correct these genetic errors and the cells are separated from the body's control mechanisms.

Abnormal genes accumulate in cells that do not work properly and gain the ability to grow uncontrollably over time. As a result, the cells become cancer cells. The basis of almost all cancer development is the disruption of a cell's genes or genetic makeup. Therefore, cancer is actually a genetic disease.

Diseases that occur as a result of the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation are called hereditary diseases or hereditary diseases. Sometimes defective genes are passed on from families to individuals, while other times a person's normal cells develop mutations over time. Mutations that are acquired later and form related tissues and cells are called somatic mutations.

What are the genes that cause cancer?

Some of the well-known cancer genes are:

  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer,
  • MutL protein homolog 1, MutS homolog 2, MutS homolog 6, PMS2, EPCAM: Lynch syndrome,
  • TP53: Li-Fraumeni,
  • STK11: Peutz-Jeghers,
  • PTEN: PTEN hamartoma tumor,
  • CDH1: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer,
  • PALB2: PALB2-associated cancer,
  • CHEK2: CHEK2-associated cancer,
  • ATM: ATM-associated cancer,
  • BRIP1: BRIP1-associated cancer,
  • RAD51C and RAD51D: RAD51C and RAD51D-associated cancer,
  • BARD1: BARD1-associated cancer,
  • NBN: NBN-associated cancer.

Fees and Prices of Cancer Genetic Tests

Cancer genetic testing fees and prices vary according to the gene and the panel. For price information, you can get information from the whatsapp line +90 0532 746 93 36, for the fixed line, you can get information from the phone number +90 0312 217 32 26.

What types of cancer are genetic?

It is a genetic disease because genetically inherited cancers pose a higher risk than normal. It is caused by mutations (changes) in certain genes that are passed from mother and father to child. One type of cancer runs in the family. These diseases are evaluated in oncology as hereditary cancer syndrome.

Hereditary cancer syndromes have the following 3 characteristics

  • If the same type of cancer is seen in several members of the family,
  • If cancer is seen at an early age,
  • If two or more types of cancer are seen in the same person.

People who frequently have breast, ovarian (female ovary),colon, uterus, pancreatic, melanoma, stomach and prostate cancers in their family should receive genetic counseling to find out if they have a risk of hereditary cancer. Gene mutation analysis can be done from patients diagnosed with cancer. According to this result, gene mutation monitoring can be done in other family members.

People who are genetically at risk of cancer

  • Having the same type of cancer in more than one family member,
  • Cancer diagnosis in different organs or tissues,
  • Early detection of cancer,
  • People with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and their first-degree relatives may be at increased risk for hereditary cancers,
  • Your first degree relatives; this can be a mother, sister or daughter, if she has been diagnosed with breast cancer,
  • If you have a first or second degree relative, grandmother, aunt or aunt, if you have a case of breast cancer,
  • If you have first and second degree relatives with both breast and ovarian cancer in your family,
  • If you have first and second degree relatives with ovarian cancer, regardless of age,
  • If a man is diagnosed with breast cancer in your home,
  • If you have pancreatic, colon, stomach and thyroid cancers in your family,
  • If there is a family history of congenital anomalies other than breast or ovarian cancer.

You may have a mutation that causes breast cancer. In this case, it is recommended that you seek genetic counseling to determine which tests may be appropriate for you.

Contact Information
Ankara Genetik Tanı Merkezi
Dr. Cell
Ankara Genetik Tanı Merkezi+90(312) 217 3226
Alacaatlı, Park Caddesi No:19 D:A/4 Cankaya Ankara Turkey
Email: info@ankaragenetik.com

We provide genetic analysis and clinical consultancy services, using the most up-to-date scientific knowledge, diagnosis and treatment methods, with the highest technology and quality standards.

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